Dextramer® for In Situ Staining

Visualizing T Cells in Tissue Sections

Tracking T cells in the tissue where they exert their function can increase the understanding of T-cell immunity. In Situ staining with Dextramer® reagents combined with immunohistochemistry can provide you with information about the abundance, spatial distribution, and localization of T cells within the tissue. 

The T cells can be visualized by direct or indirect In Situ Dextramer staining. Direct visualization uses the conjugated fluorophores on the Dextramer reagent, and indirect visualization uses antibody staining directed against the fluorophore on the Dextramer to amplify the signal.

Solid tissue like tumors and lymphoid organs have different structures and different spatial distribution of infiltrating T cells. Requirements to an optimal reagent for detection of T cells may vary, depending on tissue type and tissue preparation. The Dextramer Optimization Kit for immunohistochemistry can be used to optimize detection of antigen-specific T cells in solid tissue sections, read more

MHC I Dextramer reagents consist of a protein-stabilizing dextran backbone, an optimized number of MHC-peptide complexes, and fluorophores (PE, APC, or FITC). Find inspiration in the available MHC I Dextramer reagents listed in the table below, or read more about  MHC I and MHC II Dextramer reagents. Customized MHC Dextramer reagents are easily made with MHC alleles from our catalog and with peptides that form stable complexes with the MHC molecule.

How to Order Dextramer® for In Situ Staining

Find your Dextramer reagent in the table below, or send an e-mail to specifying:

  • Cat. no or the MHC allele-peptide combination. Please check our current list of available MHC alleles
  • Fluorophore (PE, APC, or FITC) or no Fluorophore (None)
  • Test sizes (50, 150, 500, 1000 tests)

Selected References for In Situ Staining

  1. Massilamany C, et al. Direct staining with major histocompatibility complex class II dextramers permits detection of antigen-specific, autoreactive CD4 T cells in situ. PLoS One. Published 2014 Jan 27. 2014;9(1):e87519.

  2. Massilamany C, et al. In situ detection of autoreactive CD4 T cells in brain and heart using major histocompatibility complex class II dextramers. J Vis Exp. Published 2014 Aug 1. 2014;(90):e51679.

  3. Andersen MH, et al. Spontaneous cytotoxic T-cell responses against survivin-derived MHC class I-restricted T-cell epitopes in situ as well as ex vivo in cancer patients. Cancer Res. 2001;61(16):5964-5968.

  4. Kim YH, et al. In situ detection of HY-specific T cells in acute graft-versus-host disease-affected male skin after sex-mismatched stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2012;18(3):381-387.

  5. Andersen MH, et al. The melanoma inhibitor of apoptosis protein: a target for spontaneous cytotoxic T cell responses. J Invest Dermatol. 2004;122(2):392-399.

Cryosections stained with CD8 antibody (green) and HLA-A2/HY Dextramer (red). Yellow arrows indicate colocalization of HLA-A2/HY Dextramer and CD8 antibodies on the same cell. Figure adapted from [4].

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